Wednesday March 21st 2018

Monitoring smokers for 4 years

Baseline Visits: Study and control subjects were recruited as part of a National Institutes of Health Biomarker study, and their clinical characteristics, pulmonary function, and selected biomarkers have previously been described in detail. In brief, subjects with COPD-E were recruited based on clinical evaluation and chest CT scan evidence of emphysema, which had to be present to be included in the study, whereas control subjects were required to have no clinical evidence of COPD and a normal chest CT scan. Subjects also completed pulmonary function studies, clinical evaluation (history of chronic cough, sputum production, dyspnea), and a standardized COPD questionnaire (ie, St. George Questionnaire) The COPD-E cohort (n = 10) we enrolled was composed of subjects with GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Lung Disease) stage IIb moderately severe COPD (FEV 30%-50%), with chest CT scan evidence of significant emphysema. At a later date we enrolled normal individuals who were nonsmokers (n = 7) and normal current smokers (> 20 pack-years) (n = 8). The normal nonsmokers and the normal current smokers had no evidence of disease on history and physical examination, a normal chest CT scan, and normal pulmonary function. All the study subjects had blood cotinine levels to verify their smoking status. Additional details are provided in e-Appendix 1. More information about viagra australia at

Repeat Visit 4 Years Later: The 10 subjects with COPD-E underwent sputum induction, blood cotinine level measurement, pulmonary function, and chest CT scan approximately 4 years after their initial baseline assessments. The normal individuals and current normal smokers were not followed for 4 years. A select number of current normal smokers (n = 6/8 consented to return for repeat CT scan) had a repeat chest CT scan approximately canadian pharmacy medications 2 years later. This protocol was approved by the University of California San Diego Human Subjects Protection Committee (# 040962). Additional details are provided in e-Appendix 1.

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